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Korean Grammar

Korean 한국어

Korean is a language isolate.

Phonology

Pulmonic Consonants

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant.

  Bilabial Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal   m   n                
Plosive p pʰ b t tʰ d         k kʰ g    
Fricative     s   ʃ           h  
Approximant               j        
Trill       r                
Lateral approximant       l                

[k], [p], [t], [s] also have tensed variations.

Co-articulated Consonants

w Voiced labialized velar approximant
tʃ tʃʰ Voiceless postalveolar affricate
Voiced postalveolar affricate

[tʃ] also has a tensed variation.

Vowels

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

  Front n-front Central n-back Back
Close i •       ɯ • u
Near Close          
Close mid          • o
Mid          
Open mid ɛ •        
Near open          
Open a •        • ɒ

All vowels in Korean can be long or short.

Dipthongs

Simple vowels combine with [j] or [w] to form the dipthongs [ja], [jɒ], [jo], [ju]. [jɛ], [wa], [wɒ], [wi], and [wɛ]. Also, [ɯi].

Tones

Sentential tone only.

Orthography

Alphabet

The Hangul alphabet has 40 jamo which are arranged into syllables. There are 20 basic consonants and 21 vowels.

               
           
               
             

Diacritics and Ligatures

None.

Spelling

Pulmonic Consonants
IPA Spellings Examples
m  
n  
ŋ  
p  
p'  
b  
t  
t'  
d  
k  
k'  
g  
s  
ʃ  
h  
r  
l  
Co-articulated Consonants
 
tʃ'  
 
Simple Vowels
a  
ɛ ㅐ, ㅔ  
i  
ɒ  
o  
ɯ  
u  
 Diphthongs 
ja  
 
jo  
ju  
ㅒ, ㅖ  
wa  
 
wi  
ㅚ, ㅙ, ㅞ  
ɯi  

Vocabulary

Essential Phrases

Interjections

안녕하세요
감사합니다

  • 동사 verb
  • 명사 noun
  • 형용사 adjective

 

Korean Grammar
 

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