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English Grammar

Australian English

English is a West Germanic, Indo-European language.

Phonology

Pulmonic Consonants

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant.

  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal   m           n           ŋ    
Plosive p pʰ b         t tʰ d         k kʰ g    
Fricative     f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ç       h  
Approximant               ɹ       j        
Lateral approximant               l                
  • Aspirated consonants are not distinguished from their non-aspirated equivalent.

Co-articulated Consonants

ʍ Voiceless labialized velar approximant
w Voiced labialized velar approximant
Voiceless postalveolar affricate
Voiced postalveolar affricate

Vowels

Unrounded vowel appear on the left of the bullet point, rounded ones on the right.

  Front n-front Central n-back Back
Close      iː •    • ʉː    
Near Close   ɪ •   • ʊ  
Close mid          
Mid     ə    
Open mid  ɛ ɛː •   ɜː •    • ɔ
Near open æː •         
Open  a aː •       ɑ •

Dipthongs and Triphthongs

  • Australian English has the following dipthongs: [æɪ], [ɑɪ], [ɔɪ], [æɔ], [əʉ], [ɪə], [ʊə].
  • Dipthongs not ending in [ǝ] can take another [ǝ] (or [a]) to form the following triphthongs: [æɪə], [ɑɪə], [ɔɪə], [æɔə], [əʉə].

Tone

  • Used to indicate questions
  • Used for emphasis

Stress

  • First syllable of nouns is stressed.
  • Last syllable of verbs is stressed.

Orthography

Alphabet

English uses the 26 character Roman alphabet with no diactrics and ligatures.

A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m
[æɪ] [biː] [siː] [diː] [iː] [ɛf] [dʒiː] [hæɪtʃ] [ɑɪ] [dʒæɪ] [kæɪ] [ɛl] [ɛm]
N n O o P p Q q R r S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z
[ɛn] [ǝʉ] [piː] [kjʉ] [aː] [ɛs] [tiː] [jʉ] [viː] [dabl jʉ] [ɛks] [wɑɪ] [zɛd]

Spelling

Pulmonic Consonants
m media, mammoth, numb, hymn
n noon, funny, known, gnome, pneumatic
ŋ sing, sink, tongue
p spit, happy
pat
b bat, rubber
t stack, thyme
tick, latter
d dud, ladder
k act, account, skit, quit, acknowledge, chrome, cheque
key, cat, tack
g gone, bigger, ghoul, guard, exam
h how, who
f free, scuff, rough, sapphire
v voice, savvy, of
θ those
ð then
s sale, mess, century, scythe, psychology
z zoo, fuzz, has, scissors, xylophone
ʃ shin, election, machine, mission, schedule
ʒ treasure, evasion, azure
ç human
ɹ red, parrot, rhino
j yes, onion, vignette
l lime, hall
Co-articulated Consonants
ʍ when
w wow, quit
chip, nature, batch
jam, adjective, soldier, usage
Simple Vowels
a undo, son, flood, rough
father, alms, sergeant, heart, car
æ bat, plait
ɛ pen, bury, heifer, said, says
ɛː bear, air, bare, prayer, stair, where, mayor
ɪ bit, pretty, build, busy, nymph, sieve
seen, receive, evil, magazine, siege, protein, city
ɜː turn, burr, fern, fir, learn, worm
ə taken, eloquent, pencil, nation
ʉː too, do, queue, shoe, spew, true, you
ɑ pot, wasp
ɔ torn, paw, broad
ʊ cook, pull, should, women
 Diphthongs 
æɪ ape, day, hey, feign, neigh, rain, gauge, grey
ɑɪ hive, cry, eye, benign, aisle, guy, might, rye
ɔɪ boy, oil
æɔ now, croud, bough
əʉ over, tow, dough, hoe
ɪə near, here, beer, tier
ʊə cure, skewer
Triphthongs
æɪə layer
ɑɪə fire, buyer, liar, tyre
ɔɪə lawyer
æɔə hour, cower
əʉə lower

Morphology

Inflectional

Inflection Usage Spellings
-[s/z/əz] plural cats / dogs, mazes, rubies / busses
-[s/z/əz] genetive the cat's / the dog's / the bus's
-[s/z/əz] 3rd person he wraps / he runs / she rushes
-[t/d/əd] past participle jumped / slammed / sanded
-[n] past participle seen
-[ɪŋ] present participle writing, running
-[ɜː/iɜː] comparative faster / heavier
-[əst/iəst] superlative fastest / heaviest

Derivational

Affix From To Usage Example
re- verb verb repeat tie/retie
un- adjective adjective opposite tidy/untidy
un- verb verb reverse tie/untie
-able verb adjective can be done win/winnable
-ity adjective noun - obese/obesity
-ly adjective adverb - quiet/quietly
-ous noun adjective - glamour/glamourous

Syntax

Basic word order is subject, verb, object.

Simplified Phrase Structure

S  : NP VP (conj S)
NP : (determiner) (AP+) noun (PP+)
VP : (aux) (AP+) verb ({NP,S'}) (AP+) (PP+)
AP : (AP) {adjective,adverb}
PP : preposition (NP)

Agreement

  • Subject/Verb: Verbs agree with case of subject.

Transformations

  • Subject and verb can be inverted to form a question.
  • Subject and object can be swapped for passive mood.

Semantics

Vocabulary

Essential phrases

How do you say .... in English?
What is ... in French?
Do you understand?
How do you spell that?

Interjections

hello
excuse me
sorry
please
thank you
okay
goodbye

Responses

yes
no
maybe

Interrogatives

who
what
when
where
why
how
how much

Personal pronouns

case subject object determiner possessive object
1st singular I me my mine
plural we us our ours
2nd singular you you your yours
plural you you your yours
3rd male he him his his
female she her her her
neutral it it its its
plural they them their theirs

Relative pronouns

that
where
which
who

Demonstrative pronouns

this, these
that, those

Determiners

a, an
the
this, these
that, those
some

Conjuctions

and
or
if
but
because He speaks English very well because he is English.
as
however
since
when

Prepositions

at
in
of
for
by
with
without
except
like
on
after
before
against
around
behind
in front
beside
during
inside
of
on top
near
next to  
under  
until
towards

Verbs

ask
be
can
come
do
give
go
have
know
meet
take
think
say
speak
want
will

Irregular Verbs

be
can
go
have

Adverbs

about
also
always
enough
even
less
maybe
more
never
now
obviously
often
really
several
so
somewhere
sometimes
still
surely
very
yet

Adjectives

best
better
new
next

Cardinal numbers

0 .. 10 zero, one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten
11 .. 19 eleven, twelve, thirteen, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, nineteen
20 .. 90 twenty, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety
10 ^ x hundred, thousand, million

Ordinal numbers

1 .. 10 first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth
11 .. 19 eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, ...
20 .. 90 twentieth, thirtieth, fortieth, fiftieth ...
10 ^ x hundredth, thousandth, millionth

English Grammar
 

Leave a Comment

Please visit http://languages.getsunburnt.com/grammars/english to add your comments.

Comment posted by: Roger Keays, 9 years ago

Good catch, thanks. I updated the page.

Comment posted by: Matty, 9 years ago

Past participle is -t/-d/-əd for the same phonological reasons that -s differs, your example jumped uses -t!

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