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IPA

International Phonetic Alphabet

Pulmonic Consonants

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant.

  Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal   m   ɱ       n       ɳ   ɲ   ŋ   ɴ            
Plosive p b         t d     ʈ ɖ c ɟ k g q ɢ     ʡ   ʔ  
Fricative ɸ β f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ç ʝ x ɣ χ ʁ   ħ ʕ   ʜ ʢ h ɦ
Approximant       ʋ       ɹ       ɻ   j   ɰ                
Trill   ʙ           r                   ʀ            
Tap or Flap       ѵ       ɾ       ɽ                        
Lateral fricative             ɬ ɮ                                
Lateral approximant               l       ɭ   ʎ   ʟ                
Laternal flap               ɺ                                

Non-pulmonic Consonants

Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives
ʘ Bilabial ɓ Bilabial as in:
| Dental ɗ Dental /alveolar p’ Bilabial
! Retroflex ʄ Palatal t’ Dental / alveolar
ǂ Palatal ɠ Velar k’ Velar
ǁ Lateral ʛ Uvular s’ Alveolar fricative

Co-articulated Consonants

ʍ Voiceless labialized velar approximant
w Voiced labialized velar approximant
ɥ Voiced labialized palatal approximant
ɕ Voiceless palatalized postalveolar fricative
ʑ Voiced palatalized postalveolar fricative
ɧ Simultaneous x and ʃ
  Affricates and double articulations...

Vowels

Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.

  Front n-front Central n-back Back
Close i • y   ɨ • ʉ   ɯ • u
Near Close   ɪ • ʏ   • ʊ  
Close mid e • ø   ɘ • ɵ   ɤ • o
Mid     ə    
Open mid ɛ • œ   ɜ • ɞ   ʌ • ɔ
Near open æ •    ɐ    
Open a • ɶ       ɑ • ɒ

 

IPA
 

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